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Record 49% proud of Japan's history, traditions: gov't survey

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Ok? Are they also acknowledging the really bad stuff. Of couse not!

its not in the school curriculum. So 99% of japanese people are suprised when reality hits them. And fail to understand WHY? other countries don't trust Japan. Had a home stay (several) who became upset when told Japan tried to conquer China, the Whole pacific. All they knew was Atomic bombs not why. Lack of education.

21 ( +29 / -8 )

A record amount of us here are also grandpas and grandmas too.

Just saying.

13 ( +13 / -0 )

They should be. For all if its past bad history, Japan has also enriched the world with technology and culture regardless of the naysayers on this website.

And contrary to those who still believe anti-Japan lies and propaganda, the Japanese school systems in fact use textbooks that refer to Japan's atrocities before and during WW2. In fact, less than 1% of Japanese schools use controversial textbooks that omit or gloss over Japan's past misdeeds.

And it's rich that other countries that to this day engage in whitewashing their own histories don't trust Japan. As always, those loudest to accuse Japan of revising their history, are doing the same to Japan by not doing the most basics of research that refute the stereotypes and falsehoods.

-23 ( +14 / -37 )

Similarly, 24.9 percent called "prices" a source of concern for Japan

That's been a concern for me ever since I came here. Everything in the supermarkets is so expensive. I can get most things for less than half the price back home. And I'm tired of eating bananas and moyashi. I wonder how many Japanese are proud of the expensive fruit.

The top good thing I can think of is the RELATIVE public safety. This is one of the very few countries where I would feel 99% safe going out for a walk or jog in the middle of the night.

cricky:

Are they also acknowledging the really bad stuff. Of couse not!

Now, come on, don't spoil the feel-good factor.

17 ( +21 / -4 )

And contrary to those who still believe anti-Japan lies and propaganda, the Japanese school systems in fact use textbooks that refer to Japan's atrocities before and during WW2.

Barely mention the atrocities. How many people know that the Japanese government pumped children full of amphetamine so they could work longer making war supplies?

In fact, less than 1% of Japanese schools use controversial textbooks that omit or gloss over Japan's past misdeeds. 

That’s still far too many. The fact that these textbooks even exist as in option to be used speaks volumes that you are trying to ignore.

12 ( +22 / -10 )

And contrary to those who still believe anti-Japan lies and propaganda, the Japanese school systems in fact use textbooks that refer to Japan's atrocities before and during WW2. In fact, less than 1% of Japanese schools use controversial textbooks that omit or gloss over Japan's past misdeeds.

Patently untrue....a quick look at the junior,s JHS textbook reveals about 1 1/2 to 2 pages in total devoted to WW2 with two thirds of that to Japan being the victim of US bombing raids & Hiroshima / Nagasaki / Okinawa. China & Pearl Harbour get a couple of sentences each ... pathetic.

And it's rich that other countries that to this day engage in whitewashing their own histories don't trust Japan

Rightwing nonsense and obfuscation .

22 ( +27 / -5 )

From my observations, the average Japanese person, similar to people from other countries, is proud of their country all for the wrong reasons. I would say most Japanese people don't really know much about their history, in particular the Meiji period, which in my opinion should be a great source of pride. Barely anybody knows about Meiji era bacteriologist Sahachiro Hata who together with German physician Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibacterials, which marked the beginning of what we call today modern medicine. Or physician Kitasato Shibasaburo who discovered the infectious agent of the bubonic plague in Hong Kong in 1894. There are so many more great physicians, scientists and inventors of that time period that have contributed tremendously to modernity, but sadly barely any Japanese person knows about them. And another thing barely any Japanese person knows about is that European art, at least partly, have its roots in Japanese art style Ukiyo-e. When Vincent van Gogh traveled to Japan, he brought back with him ukiyo-e woodcuts and paintings, and copied a lot of that art style into his paintings. Other European painters then copied from him. Instead of being proud of having 4 seasons, they should learn about all the contributions they have made to modernity, which in my opinion are on a par with, or even exceed those made by most European countries.

-3 ( +8 / -11 )

Don't understand why these kinds of articles keep popping up. Okay great 49% proud of Japan's history. Great! Wonderful! What % are proud of modern day running of the country. Now that is a stat worth discussing.

13 ( +14 / -1 )

This is what happens when school children get whitewashed history education in school.

And Abe san is endangering Japan's future generation because Japanese youths do not know why all of Japan's neighbors hate Japan and wouldn't hesitate to turn to wars to settle past scores whenever opportunity comes.

5 ( +15 / -10 )

Of course they do when all they know is what they've been told and the truth has been hidden from them!

13 ( +19 / -6 )

As long as you acknowledge the bad stuff as bad and learn from it then why not?

8 ( +11 / -3 )

Presumably this also means that 51.1% are not proud of Japan's history and traditions, or at least not proud enough to say so in a survey. And let's just say - this poll is about history and traditions, not just history. What's wrong with being proud of your traditions?

Despite the usual Japan-bashing going on up above, to most people 50-50 seems like the very definition of a reasonably balanced population. The United States of America, for example, is a country that's done a lot of harm to many other countries since Word War Two, yet polls consistently indicate that Americans presumably don't give a damn about, say, their war guilt in Vietnam or Iraq or any of the other countries all over the world where they've meddled, supported coups, invaded, etc., etc. and respond as follows:

Gallup Poll July 2019: 70% of Americans "proud" of US, of which 45% responded "extremely proud".

And they're concerned about it being so low.

https://news.gallup.com/poll/259841/american-pride-hits-new-low-few-proud-political-system.aspx

If that's the case in the US, what do you think it's like in other countries with a less than spotless history? Do the Brits, for example, or the French, or the Spanish, or the Belgians, spend much time agonizing about their Empires and all the havoc they wrought, the consequences of which the people of those countries still live with today? Not bloody likely.

7 ( +12 / -5 )

Is such pool necessary in such times?

Or could it be a merely distraction to keep the narrative ingrained.

6 ( +6 / -0 )

By the way, Vangogh never traveled to Japan.

Ignorance goes both way and is not limited to Japanese about their history.

I al surprised because I never ever heard a Japanese criticize openly about the harm done and how they did that in particular (with Chinese, Koreans or Asians/allies during WWII). Same opposite are not promoting about their open mindedness during Meiji.

5 ( +6 / -1 )

Every country has shameful incidents in its history, acknowledging these, that's part of growth. Traditional events have a time and place some get overtaken by time, they do not define any culture. A culture adapts and changes. Japan's history is mostly isolation and internal wars for power with a small but violent international burst. Nothing wrong about that it happens even in private lives, recognise it and adapt to the new world. But I would say that is a pretty low number. I have spent 3/4 of my life outside of my home country still proud of home. Still proud very proud about my Japanese family. Be proud Japan but blinkers off proud.

4 ( +6 / -2 )

From my experience with "nationalism", or "tribalism", the Japanese, like most other peoples, are proudest of what they know very little about. History as taught in schools has always been viewed suspiciously by governments afraid of "the truth" that would challenge or contradict their official version. In Japan "Don't mention the war" is de rigueur for the ruling right-wing ideology espoused by the LDP, Nippon Kaigi and their ilk. "Pride comes before a fall", is a reliable precept that should guide us through life since we are but the "crooked timber" of humanity. After all, on our deathbed it is not pride but humility we all feel.

8 ( +10 / -2 )

well yeah, when youre never told of the atrocities, scheming, and corruption that has plagued your history you probably would be proud of it.

4 ( +7 / -3 )

As a Kenyan-American, I hold Japan in the highest regard for the great role it played in modernizing and developing Korea, Taiwan, China and, also later providing the model for the industrialization of the so-called Asian Tigers of S East Asia: Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

Great job, Japan!

-13 ( +3 / -16 )

52.3 percent touched on the "beauty of nature."

Which they are busy destroying. In all my years here in Tokyo I've seen dozens of trees cut down and lost forever (or regularly stripped of every branch, leaving them looking like matchsticks, unable to contain bird nests or any kind of natural tree ecosystem), but I have never seen a tree planted. From observation alone, I'd say that Japanese society has a true hatred of nature.

10 ( +12 / -2 )

I would like to know more about what the remaining 51% said.

5 ( +5 / -0 )

I would say most Japanese people don't really know much about their history, in particular the Meiji period, which in my opinion should be a great source of pride. Barely anybody knows about Meiji era bacteriologist Sahachiro Hata 

Huh, did somebody hijack this person's account? The person who wrote the above comment (IloveCoffee) is usually among the first to pounce here with a typical "Japanese don't know anything about their shameful imperial history" comment. But now this person is singing the praises of medical and scientific achievements by Japanese during the same era (Meiji) when Japan became a modern imperial power?

The achievements in medicine and science by the Japanese during the Meiji Era were indeed impressive. But they have been pretty much overshadowed by the generally negative attitude a lot of people have regarding Meiji Era Japan as a precursor to all that went wrong in the 1930s and 1940s. It doesn't help that no Japanese won a Nobel Prize in the hard sciences (or anything else) until Yukawa Hideki 1949. It's through the Nobel Prize, really, that the achievements of European and American scientists in the early 20th century (like Curie and Becquerel) are remembered by anybody.

0 ( +1 / -1 )

You can fool most of the people most of the time...

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Even just phrasing it as "long history and traditions" sounds loaded to me. Every country in the world has a long history, though this can mean native peoples pre-settlement. Compared to the Golden Crescent, where civilization started, Japan's history is not long.

Japan is a good country in many ways and I like being here. It's a fairly equitable society compared to the 1%ers vs. the rest regression elsewhere. The obvious problem in Japan compared to other advanced countries is the status of women. I bet Japan is the only one where women get marked down on medical school exams.

3 ( +4 / -1 )

This kind of comment is interesting:

... contributions... on a par with, or even exceed those made by most European countries.

I often observe Japanese people eager to compare their culture or achievements with those of other countries, for the main purpose of establishing the superiority of Japan in their own minds.

It's a childish trait of some Japanese IMHO.

Perhaps they have a feeling of inferiority that they dislike.

Maybe, in their minds, they compare a man playing a shamisen with a full European symphony orchestra and it kind of makes them angry or something.

Another aspect is the ridiculous plethora of "Nihon Sugoi!!" TV programs in Japan.

There seems to be one on TV here every night... with Japanese lauding Japan's culture to the high heavens.

Or else they get foreigners to do the lauding.

These programs just seem to be really smug and creepy.

They almost seem designed to brainwash the Japanese into loving Japan.

9 ( +10 / -1 )

Whoops, showing my ignorance there. It's the "fertile crescent". That shows how much deep history we learn at UK schools.

-2 ( +0 / -2 )

And Japanese have plenty to be proud of. It's a beautiful history. Those who think Japanese should mope around all day and berate themselves because of what happened years ago should just stuff of sock in it. Especially if you're from Europe or America. Your histories are filled with the most evil of atrocities of human existence. You're in no position to point your noses. Show some gratitude to your host country.

-5 ( +4 / -9 )

CrickyToday 06:46 am JST

Had a home stay (several) who became upset when told Japan tried to conquer China, the Whole pacific. All they knew was Atomic bombs not why. Lack of education.

Or maybe they are just feeling the hostility from their homestay host choosing to bring this crap up. When you receive homestays from other nations, do you feel the need to dredge up whatever you feel are the nastiest parts of their history and portray them in the least favorable manner?

-2 ( +3 / -5 )

Mr. Noidall:

We're not usually on the same side, but you expressed that succinctly and admirably.

Well said.

-5 ( +1 / -6 )

I'm not sure why revisionists here want to wipe the reality of history.

Japan is the only Asian country that was able to modernize and industrialize at the pace of the advanced European powers of the time.

Via England, Britain was the first country to industrialize during the period of the first Industrial Revolution in the late 18th Century. Thereafter, the countries of continental Europe followed: France, Germany, Scandinavia, Italy , et al.

What did these European countries do with the wealth and power they amassed: conquer others and engage in Imperialism and Colonialism.

The only Asian country that emulated the Europeans by modernizing and industrializing was Japan .

And that's why they used their wealth, technological prowess and more advanced military to colonize their weaker less advanced Asian neighbors.

Had the other Asian countries been in Japan's position of superiority chances are that they too would have pursued the imperialist colonial experiment!

Nothing sentimental about all this.

It's History 101.

-4 ( +4 / -8 )

Japan has a lot to be proud of in terms of history and culture, but you also have to keep in mind they are not at all taught the history of WWII correctly, and Abe himself brags about having references to sexual slavery removed from textbooks, etc. So, they don't learn about that stuff at all. They're even told Japan is the victim of WWII.

That said, I don't think individuals should be ashamed of that, either. It's not like they had a part of it -- save the deniers and apologists; THOSE people should be on their knees begging for forgiveness for what they support and are willing to spread, and are just as guilty as those who carried out the atrocities to begin with.

3 ( +7 / -4 )

@kasukai

Or maybe they are just feeling the hostility from their homestay host choosing to bring this crap up. When you receive homestays from other nations, do you feel the need to dredge up whatever you feel are the nastiest parts of their history and portray them in the least favorable manner?

what? I welcome people into my house my family from all nations. Why do you say that? I just said my experience. If I was hostile I wouldn't have home stays. And my family certainly don't focus on negatives. I was just saying when exposed to historical facts through an robust educational system it was a shock. You can't possibly think I'd berate anyone for their nationality?

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Cricky Today 11:52 am JST

what? I welcome people into my house my family from all nations. Why do you say that? I just said my experience. If I was hostile I wouldn't have home stays. And my family certainly don't focus on negatives. I was just saying when exposed to historical facts through an robust educational system it was a shock. You can't possibly think I'd berate anyone for their nationality?

I don't think you do, and I'll even apologize for just assuming YOU (or your family members) initiated the whole WWII conversation rather than it being something they experience in class. Re-reading it, I have to admit the original post allows for the interpretation that your family did not initiate the conversation.

Still, I'll suspect not many people from other countries have to suffer such weight being given to a nation's past wrongs. The Germans, OK, they start their guilt education at home. But otherwise, Americans won't spend a lot of time about every massacre that happened under British colonization, the British won't talk about the Yanks and the dead American Indians ... etc.

-6 ( +1 / -7 )

I love coffee: "When Vincent van Gogh traveled to Japan.."

Maybe in a parallel universe, but not this one.

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/jun/04/van-gogh-and-japan-review-documentary-japanese-art

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Record 49% proud of Japan's history, traditions: gov't survey

I can never get my head around the ‘proud’ bit. I work with engineers and one told me how I should be proud of my country’s contribution to science and engineering and reeled off a list of geniuses.

I’m not one of them.

4 ( +4 / -0 )

Kazuaki Shimazaki: "Still, I'll suspect not many people from other countries have to suffer such weight being given to a nation's past wrongs."

Well, you can 'suspect' it all you want, coming immediately after choosing to incorrectly interpret the post of the person you quoted, but you'd still be wrong then, too. And you know what you would do when I point that out? You'd shrug and say, "Well, that's your 'opinion'," same as so many do when you talk about the facts of history. Other countries DO teach about the negative things they have done in history, some with nearly as much spin as Japan (I don't agree with anyone who teaches the atomic bombings were a GOOD thing that "saved lives"), or at least they don't try to cover up awareness of it. Heck, it's against the law in some of these countries to deny the Holocaust occurred -- those black truck morons here would all be in prison.

Anyway, I'm not surprised you're deflecting and attacking others when the negative points of history in Japan (or regarding Japan) are not taught, but at least you admit to that fact in your post, which is a bit of a baby step towards progress. It shouldn't ALL be negative, not by any means, but pres tel how much of a history textbook is devoted to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki vs.... say, sexual slavery and the Nanjing Massacre?

1 ( +5 / -4 )

And Abe san is endangering Japan's future generation because Japanese youths do not know why all of Japan's neighbors hate Japan and wouldn't hesitate to turn to wars to settle past scores whenever opportunity comes.

I'm pretty sure the whole world hates China right now, not Japan.

-4 ( +1 / -5 )

Sorry, I started this.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

well yeah, when youre never told of the atrocities, scheming, and corruption that has plagued your history you probably would be proud of it.

You would be surprised at how many English people are unaware and not taught of the atrocities they committed against the Irish.

-2 ( +1 / -3 )

Those surveyed have most likely never lived in another country, so they have nothing to compare against the Japan way.

2 ( +2 / -0 )

suomitheway: "I'm pretty sure the whole world hates China right now, not Japan."

Perhaps some misdirect their nation's anger with where the virus spawned, yes, but that has nothing to do with history, and Japan's neighbours still very much loathe the way Japan deals with modern history in particular. Nice try at deflection, though.

"You would be surprised at how many English people are unaware and not taught of the atrocities they committed against the Irish."

Deflection, deflection, deflection. But since you brought it up and obviously know, how many is it?

Jimizo: "I can never get my head around the ‘proud’ bit."

I meant to touch on this, as I have a problem with how most people here and elsewhere are also "proud" of things they had nothing to do with. I mean, you can be proud of your heritage and customs without it being the "pride" we associate with how we feel about our personal accomplishments, or even boasting about them. It's when people feel that kind of pride over things they have no control or have not contributed to that I don't get. Like one time when a person asked me if I'd climbed Mt. Fuji. I said "No, not yet, but I'd like to. It's a beautiful mountain," and the person smiled from ear and ear and thanked me, as though I'd praised them for a cake they'd baked. Or likewise when someone said, "Oh! I've been to your country and seen Niagara Falls! You should be proud!" I thought, "Of what? You being there? or you seeing something that's within the borders of the country I was lucky to be born in and had no part in creating?" Likewise, I don't understand how some people get so offended if you criticise the smallest thing or point out the facts, like with history.

1 ( +5 / -4 )

smithinjapanToday 12:30 pm JST

but pres tel how much of a history textbook is devoted to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki vs.... say, sexual slavery and the Nanjing Massacre?

From the Japanese perspective, why do you think the former is LESS interesting than the latter?

And I'll also propose that critical bits are suppressed in the Western narrative. You mentioned the atom bombs. As far as I can see, the overall effect of the education in America is to train the average American to see the atom bombs as something controversial, but at least it is not abominable to claim it was justified. However, in dealing with it in a half-arsed manner, critical parts are dropped from view. Do you notice it is always phrased in terms of "Invasion" or "Nuke"? Options like "If we don't want to waste one million soldiers and it is unacceptable to nuke civilians, then we should just be happy with the destruction of the Japanese Fleet and sign a peace from a position of strength." never even show up. The requirement for "Unconditional Surrender" is subtly altered into something non-negotiable.

Or how about critical little bits that rarely make it in. You have to DIG to find a Marco Polo rendition in America that started when the Chinese took potshots at the Japanese. Instead, everyone is expected to swallow the Kool-Aid about it starting with the Japanese just kind of asking out of nowhere about a missing soldier... and it seems that many do. This actually changes the solution quite a bit, but no one cares, right? You'll also need to work to find out that the Chinese outnumbered the Japanese over 10 to 1. Or that divisions were NOT in a state of mobilization when the incident happened? 

Or the Chinese actually provoked the whole 2nd Battle of Shanghai, which is then lost and that's why the Japanese were even IN Nanking. (I don't know about you, but since the entire plan there was to surprise-rush the Japanese, as soon as that did not work I'd be suing for peace)

(By the way, in case you think these are entirely from Japanese sources, there are English sources that mention them, just as there are history books in Japan. But they aren't in the main educating flow).

These little "details" didn't make it into American education, right? Instead, you are given an impression of Operation Barbarossa, except in Asia.

-5 ( +3 / -8 )

Another good question would be out of those 49% who actually votes now? Who is proud of the past but has an interest in the future of the country.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Actually a meaningless and very inaccurate poll.

Out of 10,000 people, 5,400 responded and 2,600 people claimed to be proud of their history. So 2,600 people represent the opinions and views of 127 million people.

A waste of time and money.

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Japan is the only country that more foreigners are proud of it than Japanese.

-2 ( +2 / -4 )

To quote the Queen from her speech yesterday; “The pride in who we are is not part of our past, it defines our present and future.”

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Hmm, was the survey really about history, tradition?

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Old good traditions that make people happy are good. But bad tradition like tatemae & horne must go away.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Kazuaki-san - I believe when addressing historical incidents like The Marco Polo Bridge incident, the bigger questions need to be asked and discussed and not just cherry pick and promote essentially unknowns.

In the case mentioned, we need to ask far broader questions, such as, what was Japan doing in a foreign sovereign country with a large primed, cocked and at the ready military force?

Or go back earlier to why was Japan in Manchuria?

Why did they set up a puppet Manchuko regime?

What was the Mukden incident and how did it define Japan's intent and relations with the countries it was occupying or other countries observing?

Who invited the IJA into China proper?

Who asked the IJA to take Shangai?

Who invited the IJA to lay siege upon the capital of a sovereign country - Nanking?

Without Historiology being at the forefront of historical analysis - esp in education - then understanding the past and learning from it is stifled, and History just becomes a collection of pre-dominately names & dates to be rote learned and remembered.

I've witnessed very, very little of an historiological scientific methodology applied to modern history studies in schools.

True pride in one's country can only be afforded by a panoramic view of all of one's past - warts & all.

Some may not like it, but it is necessary.

0 ( +1 / -1 )

@MASSWIPE

One does not contradict the other. They are ignorant of their war crimes, but they are also ignorant of their contributions too.

Plus I've changed my perspective on a lot of things. I've said before that i hate the revisionists, but i hate even more double standards and hypocrisy. England and France have done far more evil throughout their history than Japan, yet non of that is being taught in their history classes. Much like Japan, in England they cherry pick only the positive stuff, and ignore the negatives. And much like Japan, a lot of nationalists from their govt. have repeatedly denied any wrong doing throughout their history, even praised their "Empire". Why is it OK for English politicians to praise their Empire, compared to which Japanese war crimes are a drop in the ocean, but it's not OK for Japanese politicians to do the same? The answer is obvious - they control the narrative through their media. Even to this day, France is literally occupying a lot of African countries illegally by controlling their currency to fund its own deficits. Why isn't that condemned by anybody? Again, dog does not eat dog. The narrative makers won't bite themselves. For these people to criticize Japanese people for being brainwashed with revisionist history, when they themselves are even more brainwashed about their own, is something i can't accept. In general, i am against the overly self-loathing approach the Germans have adopted towards their history. WW2 is just a fraction of Germany's history, yet that's all people learn about. Germany's contributions to modernity exceed those of England and France combined, yet the narrative makers have reduced Germany's history to WW1 and WW2, while at the same time inflated their own. The biggest criminals, thieves and aggressors, namely England and France, walk out of this doing exactly what they accuse Japan of doing.

-4 ( +0 / -4 )

For those who come from countries that Japan saved from European colonialism - consider that my country and many others in Africa succumbed to even more brutal European colonialism and imperialism unlike the modernization Korea, China, Taiwan experienced under the Japanese.

If China is proud of the Communist party CCP or Koreans their rich and admirable porcelains, why shouldn't Japan - the vanguard country in East Asia!

-3 ( +0 / -3 )

MkoreaMwafrikaToday 09:24 am JST

For those who come from countries that Japan saved from European colonialism - consider that my country and many others in Africa succumbed to even more brutal European colonialism and imperialism unlike the modernization Korea, China, Taiwan experienced under the Japanese.

Thank you for your perspective from someone coming from a different point on the horizon, offering another approach.

I do feel though that playing one brutalized card against another brutalized card to determine who was subject to greater brutalization, creating a "my opinion has more worth because my story of brutalization is worse" scenario.

History, sadly is essentially a collective of stories of brutalization. For most societies in history it has been a continual suppression of humanity - mostly in as harrowing a manner as possible. Societies compassion for their own kind, let alone outsiders has almost been non-existant until pockets of the latter 20thC.

From my observations - reading, listening, studying - some societies have in recent years started to be more open about their darker histories, using it as opportunities to reflect, learn, improve and move forward in a way that possibly instills more quantitative pride in their own countries than any amount of glossy air-brushed nationalism could.

Example in my home country Australia - finally the terrible injustices committed against the indigenous peoples are being acknowledged, discussed, and owned up to in an attempt to accept the wrongs and move forward together. It's only started (30years) and has a long way to go, but nothing is hidden and almost no one challenges that this is the right way to progress. Understanding and acceptance.

This is what being an honest country entails, the first steps. Real Pride will result.

Japan needs to squarely confront it's past and let all of it's citizens partake in the process. What it doesn't need to do is compare itself to other countries brutality and say to the effect, "Well they did it too" or "They were worse than us".

Education is the key.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Or go back earlier to why was Japan in Manchuria?

Why did they set up a puppet Manchuko regime?

What was the Mukden incident and how did it define Japan's intent and relations with the countries it was occupying or other countries observing?

Who invited the IJA into China proper?

Who asked the IJA to take Shangai?

Who invited the IJA to lay siege upon the capital of a sovereign country - Nanking?

Oooff!! When smacked with logic, the mental gymnastic gears break up and off they scuttle away. Good job.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

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