tech

Panasonic develops new water purification system

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Panasonic Corp on Monday announced that it has developed a highly effective water purification system using a newly developed photocatalyst. This system is capable of effective detoxification of polluted water by harmful heavy metals, such as arsenic, chromium, and persistent organic matter at a reaction rate of up to 100 times that of conventional methods.

The photocatalyst has a unique structure and is easy to collect from the polluted water after the detoxification and is recyclable. Through this development, a water purification system which is small size and isolated from municipal water networks can be realized, making is suitable for developing countries, where safe and low cost drinking water is needed.

Increasing demands and shortage of clean drinking water resources due to the rapid development of industrialization, population growth and long-term droughts have become a global issue. In polluted areas, drinking water may contain metal pollutants at levels more than double international standards. The slurry photocatalytic water treatment technology has the potential to resolve these problems that especially occur in contaminated groundwater since this technology efficiently reduces the toxicity of harmful pollutants by a maximum of 99.99%: trivalent arsenic and hexavalent chromium are converted into less harmful chemicals. As no consumption of chemical materials is carried out during the photocatalytic water treatment, the technology has a lower impact on the environmental in comparison to conventional chemical water treatments.

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to resolve these problems that especially occur in contaminated groundwater

Sure with TEPCO, you had better start to work on some way to reduce contamination of the groundwater, except that you cant.

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99.99%

I doubt it. it all depends on how you do the calculation.

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it all depends on how you do the calculation.

WTF? Care to elaborate?

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kickboard Aug. 06, 2013 - 09:40AM JST

WTF? Care to elaborate?

from Wikipedia:

Measuring toxicity[edit source]

Toxicity can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxin, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of toxin is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection factor may be used for individuals believed to be more susceptible to toxic effects such as in pregnancy or with certain diseases. Or, a newly synthesized and previously unstudied chemical that is believed to be very similar in effect to another compound could be assigned an additional protection factor of 10 to account for possible differences in effects that are probably much smaller. Obviously, this approach is very approximate; but such protection factors are deliberately very conservative, and the method has been found to be useful in a deep variety of applications.

Assessing all aspects of the toxicity of cancer-causing agents involves additional issues, since it is not certain if there is a minimal effective dose for carcinogens, or whether the risk is just too small to see. In addition, it is possible that a single cell transformed into a cancer cell is all it takes to develop the full effect (the "one hit" theory).

It is more difficult to determine the toxicity of chemical mixtures than a pure chemical, because each component displays its own toxicity, and components may interact to produce enhanced or diminished effects. Common mixtures include gasoline, cigarette smoke, and industrial waste. Even more complex are situations with more than one type of toxic entity, such as the discharge from a malfunctioning sewage treatment plant, with both chemical and biological agents.

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