Japan Today

asdfgtr comments

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

By declaring war and invading, Russia flagrantly violated the pact first

Essentially you are asserting Japan can violate the pact first

Incorrect. I suggest you learn about the international law of armed conflict and neutrality:

Warships of the belligerent parties may be admitted into a neutral port for repair (but not to restore their battle worthiness), to revictual to peacetime standards or to refuel to the extent necessary to enable them to reach the nearest home port. Their stay must not exceed twenty-four hours except in case of damage or stress of weather. A maximum of three vessels of one belligerent are allowed in port at any one time. If two belligerents have vessels in the same port they must depart at different times, i.e. 24 hours apart.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/law8_final.pdf

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Japan violated Article 2 by assisting Germany's war effort from 22/6/41, making it the first flagrant violation

Incorrect. The facts remain that the first flagrant violation was by the Soviet Union. (which no longer exists BTW)

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_War

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

I don't see the word or sentence that mentions "nullified" or anything of that meaning anywhere in the text.

Exactly! The Soviets failed to nullify the pact and were in flagrant violation of its terms.

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Oh, in turn... I see. So, you acknowledge that Japan was the first to violate the pact by breaking Article 2 first.

No. Russia was clearly the first to flagrantly violate the pact.

Try again.

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Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

From 22 June 1941, per Article 2, Japan was required to cease helping Germany's war effort against the USSR.

It didn't. Flagrant violation.

In turn, Russia would have been required to cease helping America's war effort against Japan. It didn't. Violation claim nullified.

4 ( +4 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Flagrant violation of Article 2 right there, effective December 7/8th 1941.

Wrong again. America was not a party to the pact.

2 ( +3 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

The USA .... did not attack Japan.

Laughable. Did you miss WWII history class? The two countries were at war. The USA attacked Japan multiple times throughout WWII.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II

4 ( +4 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@HopeSringsEternal,

That's rich, Putin and his cronies like Medvedev at +80% approval...

And you seriously believe this. Human gullibility knows no bounds!

Medvedev allegedly owns and controls large areas of land, villas, palaces, yachts, expensive apartments, wineries and estates through complicated ownership structures involving shell companies and foundations. Their total value is estimated at around US$1.2 billion. The original source of wealth is gifts by Russian oligarchs and loans from state owned banks. These revelations have resulted in large protests throughout Russia. Russian authorities responded by arresting protesters in unauthorised protests—hundreds were arrested. An April 2017 Levada poll found that 45% of surveyed Russians supported the resignation of Medvedev.

3 ( +3 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Japan was in flagrant violation of the neutrality pact by actively assisting the German navy and war effort:

Laughably weak argument as the Soviets had claimed pact neutrality for years prior to repudiation while allowing British and American ships - including auxiliary raiders - to port and resupply in Russian and other Russian controlled ports. Submarines too.

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@HopeSpringsEternal,

not referring to nice cars and fancy houses. It's about SELLING out via Policy Corruption, pursing policies in Best Interests of Special Interests/Elites and NOT the Public/Citizenry/Country.

So you're blind to Medvedev's greed, graft and corruption. Got it!

5 ( +5 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@HopeSpringsEternal,

So you admit that no one supports Russia's claims to the islands. We're making progress!

5 ( +5 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Japan violated the pact by allowing German ships - particularly auxiliary raiders - to port and resupply in Japan and other Japanese controlled ports. U-boats too.

Incorrect as the Soviets had claimed pact neutrality for years while allowing British and American ships - including auxiliary raiders - to port and resupply in Russian and other Russian controlled ports. Submarines too.

5 ( +5 / -0 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years.

> Which means Moscow had to denounce/annul it before April 13th, which happened. It means they have to give at least one-year advance notice to the other side.

LMAO! The "one year advance notice" you claim relates to renewal not early termination. Obviously, you a have not understood the agreement:

The text of the treaty had stated that the pact remained "valid for five years" (**i.e., until April 13, 1946). When Japanese Ambassador Naotake Sato pressed him, Molotov assured him that the treaty would remain in force until April 1946. The treaty also stated, "In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years" (April 13, 1946 - April 13, 1951). The denunciation came on April 5, 1945, which under those terms meant that the treaty would not renew on April 13, 1946.**

Case closed!

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

Telling someone you are going to do something doesn't always make it official until they officially do it. They were, in effect and in fact, given advance notice of intent before the official act, which was in accordance with the agreement.

Incorrect. The pact was not denounced in accordance with the agreement. Obviously you a have neither read nor understood the agreement:

The text of the treaty had stated that the pact remained "valid for five years" (i.e., until April 13, 1946). When Japanese Ambassador Naotake Sato pressed him, Molotov assured him that the treaty would remain in force until April 1946. The treaty also stated, "In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years" (April 13, 1946 - April 13, 1951). The denunciation came on April 5, 1945, which under those terms meant that the treaty would not renew on April 13, 1946.

Quite a frivolous argument really. 

LOL! Hitler probably used the same laughable excuse to violate his agreements and launch an invasion of the Soviet Union.

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@HopeSpringsEternal,

One reason Medvedev's so popular, no citizen questions his loyalty to Russia. Medvedev is not controlled by greedy corrupt unelected special interests that plague democracies

LMAO! Obviously you know nothing about Russian people. He is despised for this corruption and greed:

In March 2017, Navalny the Russian based Anti-Corruption Foundation published an in-depth investigation of properties and residences used by Medvedev and his family. A film titled He Is Not Dimon To You shows how Medvedev allegedly owns and controls large areas of land, villas, palaces, yachts, expensive apartments, wineries and estates through complicated ownership structures involving shell companies and foundations.Their total value is estimated at around US$1.2 billion. The report states that the original source of wealth is gifts by Russian oligarchs and loans from state owned banks. He Is Not Dimon To You was released together with the report. A month after release, the video had more than 24 million views.  These revelations have resulted in large protests throughout Russia. Russian authorities responded by arresting protesters in unauthorised protests—hundreds were arrested. An April 2017 Levada poll found that 45% of surveyed Russians supported the resignation of Medvedev.

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Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

The Soviet-Japan was voided by not renewing it within the written terms of the agreement, which was within a one-year timeframe before it would have automatically been renewed. This happened in April 1945......

The pact was denounced in accordance with the agreement and has no bearing on the Kuril Islands whatsoever.

Wrong.

The pact was not denounced in accordance with the agreement:

The text of the treaty had stated that the pact remained "valid for five years" (i.e., until April 13, 1946). When Japanese Ambassador Naotake Sato pressed him, Molotov assured him that the treaty would remain in force until April 1946. The treaty also stated, "In case neither of the Contracting Parties denounces the Pact one year before the expiration of the term, it will be considered automatically prolonged for the next five years" (April 13, 1946 - April 13, 1951). The denunciation came on April 5, 1945, which under those terms meant that the treaty would not renew on April 13, 1946.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_Neutrality_Pact

You should also be aware the The Soviet Union signed multiple "friendship" pacts with Nazi Germany that enabled The Holocaust:

One example is the The Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in August 1939. It paved the way for Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and occupy Poland that September. The pact was an agreement permitting them to carve up spheres of influence in eastern Europe, while pledging not to attack each other for 10 years. Less than two years later, however, Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.

Later the Soviets took a page from Hitler's playbook and broke violated their treaty with Japan to illegally seize the islands we are discussing.

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

The UK comments and pokes its nose into everyone's business - how odd that they are silent on this issue especially as it pertains to Russia

Nice deflection and whataboutism. The fact remains that Russia illegally occupies the islands in violation of the The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact which was signed in Moscow on April 13, 1941.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_Neutrality_Pact

You should also be aware the The Soviet Union signed multiple "friendship" pacts with Nazi Germany that enabled The Holocaust:

One example is the The Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in August 1939. It paved the way for Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and occupy Poland that September. The pact was an agreement permitting them to carve up spheres of influence in eastern Europe, while pledging not to attack each other for 10 years. Less than two years later, however, Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.

Later the Soviets took a page from Hitler's playbook and violated their treaty with Japan to illegally seize the islands we are discussing.

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/german-soviet-pact

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@HopeSpringsEternal,

......others across BRICS and Global South, could care less.......regarding these islands or other matters.

Sorry dude, but your claim is laughably wrong. During a March 20-21 2023 meeting in Moscow, Xi Jinping made the effort to directly inform a cowering Putin that China "does not take either side" regarding the territorial dispute.

Clearly, China wears the pants in BRICS!

3 ( +5 / -2 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE,

The UK is strangely silent on the Kuril Islands. That is obviously because of the Falklands. So, the EU has yet another double standard.

Laughably false.

On July 7, 2005, the European Parliament issued an official statement recommending the return of the territories to Japan.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuril_Islands_dispute

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@smithinjapan

Also must hurt knowing they were offered two back but due to nationalistic sentiment said it must be all, and now is none.

Why would it "hurt" considering the two islands offered by your hero Putin (Shikotan and the Habomais) only account for about 6% of the disputed area?

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: 'We don't give a damn about the feelings of Japanese concerning the so-called Northern Territories:' Medvedev See in context

@JJE

.....Moscow and will not get the islands back EVER which were legitimately seized during WWII.

Incorrect. The Russians occupy illegally occupy them in violation of the The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact which was signed in Moscow on April 13, 1941.

The San Francisco Peace Treaty signed between the Allies and Japan in 1951, does not recognize the Soviet Union's sovereignty over them.

Here is a starting point for your research:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_Neutrality_Pact

You should also be aware the The Soviet Union signed multiple "friendship" pacts with Nazi Germany that enabled The Holocaust:

One example is the The Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in August 1939. It paved the way for Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and occupy Poland that September. The pact was an agreement permitting them to carve up spheres of influence in eastern Europe, while pledging not to attack each other for 10 years. Less than two years later, however, Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.

Later the Soviets took a page from Hitler's playbook and broke violated their treaty with Japan to illegally seize the islands we are discussing.

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/german-soviet-pact

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

In his speech to the soldiers and sailors, especially die-hard officers who might still wish to continue fighting, the emperor DID NOT mention the atomic bomb. Rather, it was Soviet participation in the war that provided a justification to persuade the troops to lay down their arms.

Afterward, the emperor did refer to both the bombs and the Soviet Union in his rescript to the general Japanese population. However, he also laughably claimed the same speech:

"We declared war....out of Our sincere desire to secure....stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement."

This clearly shows Hirohito's willingness to lie to the Japanese people.

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Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@JBoneInTheZone

How does this contradict or invalidate Hirohito saying the bombs had an effect on surrender?

It shows that Hirohito was willing to lie in the speech you rely on.

Japanese army chief of staff Yoshijiro Umezu stated it doesn’t change their plan to enact Ketsugo 

Irrelevant. He didn't have the power to unilaterally declare unconditional surrender.

You’re also conveniently leaving out that Hirohito’s surrender address to the Japanese people leaves out the invasion of Manchuria and solely mentions the bombs

Incorrect. This was explicitly addressed in my earlier posts.

-1 ( +0 / -1 )

Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@TaiwanIsNotChina,

Yeah, it took them a day or so to confirm entire cities dropping out of communication. Doesn't make it a glorious Soviet victory for you.

Meaningless ad hominem.

History quite clearly shows us that dithering would have had catastrophic consequences, though.

Incorrect. That is just your opinion. I place greater emphasis on the findings of historians:

https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/30/the-bomb-didnt-beat-japan-stalin-did/

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Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@JBoneInTheZone,

In direct contradiction to Hirohito’s own words, right?

Hirohito also laughably claimed the very same speech:

"We declared war....out of Our sincere desire to secure....stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement."

I suppose you believe this too?

In reality, what motivated Hirohito to surrender to the U.S. was neither a pious wish to bring peace to humanity nor a sincere desire to save the people and the nation from destruction, as his speech to civilians stated and as the myth of the emperor’s “sacred decision” would have Americans eager to justify nuking civilians believe. More than anything else, it was a sense of personal survival and deep responsibility to maintain the imperial house (which Russian occupation would most certainly have dismantled), which had lasted in unbroken lineage since the Jinmu emperor.

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@JBoneInTheZone,

How does this prove he doesn’t believe the bombs to be a major factor in his surrender when he clearly said so?

When dozens of Japanese cities were now being bombed into oblivion every single night, the fact that two of them were destroyed in one blast was only slightly interesting. In fact, The Japanese war councils did not meet to discuss it – but they did immediately convene to discuss the new Soviet-driven reality.

Specifically, Emperor Hitohito's imperial rescript surrender speech to the Japanese troops made no acknowledgement of the bombs:

https://apjjf.org/-tsuyoshi-hasegawa/2501/article.html

In his speech to the soldiers and sailors, especially die-hard officers who might still wish to continue fighting, the emperor did not mention the atomic bomb. Rather, it was Soviet participation in the war that provided a more powerful justification to persuade the troops to lay down their arms.

The emperor did refer to bombs in his rescript to the general Japanese population. However, he also laughably claimed the same speech:

"We declared war....out of Our sincere desire to secure....stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement."

In reality, what motivated Hirohito to surrender to the U.S. was neither a pious wish to bring peace to humanity nor a sincere desire to save the people and the nation from destruction, as his speech to civilians stated and as the myth of the emperor’s “sacred decision” would have Americans eager to justify nuking civilians believe. More than anything else, it was a sense of personal survival and deep responsibility to maintain the imperial house (which Russian occupation would most certainly have dismantled), which had lasted in unbroken lineage since the Jinmu emperor.

Here are some starting points for your research:

https://rethinkingschools.org/2013/08/09/army-teaches-wrong-lesson-in-nations-high-schools/

https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/30/the-bomb-didnt-beat-japan-stalin-did/

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Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@JBoneInTheZone

It wasn’t until the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki did Hirohito directly intervene and offer and unconditional surrender

Your timeline is incorrect.

"Next came the virtually simultaneous arrival of news of the Soviet declaration of war on Japan of August 8, 1945, and the atomic bombing of Nagasaki of the following day. Another Imperial Council was held the night of August 9-10, and this time the vote on surrender was a tie, 3-to-3. For the first time in a generation, the emperor (right) stepped forward from his normally ceremonial-only role and personally broke the tie, ordering Japan to surrender. On August 10, 1945, Japan offered to surrender to the Allies, the only condition being that the emperor be allowed to remain the nominal head of state."

https://www.osti.gov/opennet/manhattan-project-history/Events/1945/surrender.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_invasion_of_Manchuria

The situation changed on 9 August 1945, but not because Nagasaki was bombed. On that day, the Soviets declared war on Japan. It wasn't until Stalin announced the new war that Hirohito directly intervened and offered unconditional surrender.

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Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@JBoneInTheZone

On August 15, 1945, Japanese Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of Japan to his peoplein the “Jewel Voice Broadcast,” or “Gyokuon-hoso.” in this broadcast he stated:

“Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should We continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.”

In his speech to the soldiers and sailors, especially die-hard officers who might still wish to continue fighting, the emperor DID NOT mention the atomic bomb. Rather, it was Soviet participation in the war that provided a more powerful justification to persuade the troops to lay down their arms.

Yes, afterward, the emperor did refer to bombs in his rescript to the general Japanese population. However, he also laughably claimed the same speech:

"We declared war....out of Our sincere desire to secure....stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement."

Do you believe this too?

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@TaiwanIsNotChina

Rather than your opinion on this matter, I place much more value on the words of Brigadier General Carter Clarke and the WWII officers at the time:

“We brought them [the Japanese] down to an abject surrender through the accelerated sinking of their merchant marine and hunger alone, and when we didn’t need to do it, and we knew we didn’t need to do it, and they knew that we knew we didn’t need to do it, we used them as an experiment for two atomic bombs.”

In fact, six out of seven five-star WWII officers — condemned the use of the atomic bomb:

For example, Admiral William Leahy, White House chief of staff and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the war. Leahy wrote in his 1950 memoirs that "the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender." Moreover, Leahy continued, "in being the first to use it, we had adopted an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages. I was not taught to make war in that fashion, and wars cannot be won by destroying women and children."

-1 ( +1 / -2 )

Posted in: U.S. records confirm 12 U.S. soldiers died from Hiroshima A-bomb See in context

@TaiwanIsNotChina & OssanAmerica

Japan is now free from what would have been a Russian occupation.

> their use prevented the Soviets/Russians from taking Hokkaido if not half of Japan. 

I find your opinions unconvincing.

The Japanese would have unconditionally surrendered immediately to the US without the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the Soviet Union entered the war.

Early in the war, the Soviets negotiated a peace treaty with Japan so they would not have to fight a war on two fronts. But, after the German surrender, the Soviets broke the treaty, declared war, and invaded Manchuria (including two small islands), crushing an elite Japanese army stationed there and seizing vast, logistically very-difficult territory at breakneck speed. The Soviets were now poised to attack Japan from the west, a trivial distance away across the Sea of Japan. And it was very obvious that they would very quickly do it, using no international forces other than their own.

Now, Japan realized that it was finally doomed. They had no mainland forces left to counter the Soviet juggernaut, and no way to defend against the coming invasion. Now, they had to either surrender to the Allies, or to risk having to surrender entirely to the Soviets.

When dozens of Japanese cities were now being bombed into oblivion every single night, the fact that two of them were destroyed in one blast was only slightly interesting. In fact, The Japanese war councils did not meet to discuss it – but they did immediately convene to discuss the new Soviet-driven reality.

Specifically, Emperor Hitohito's imperial rescript surrender speech to the Japanese troops made no acknowledgement of the bombs:

https://apjjf.org/-tsuyoshi-hasegawa/2501/article.html

In his speech to the soldiers and sailors, especially die-hard officers who might still wish to continue fighting, the emperor did not mention the atomic bomb. Rather, it was Soviet participation in the war that provided a more powerful justification to persuade the troops to lay down their arms.

The emperor did refer to bombs in his rescript to the general Japanese population. However, he also laughably claimed the same speech:

"We declared war....out of Our sincere desire to secure....stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement."

In reality, what motivated Hirohito to surrender to the U.S. was neither a pious wish to bring peace to humanity nor a sincere desire to save the people and the nation from destruction, as his speech to civilians stated and as the myth of the emperor’s “sacred decision” would have Americans eager to justify nuking civilians believe. More than anything else, it was a sense of personal survival and deep responsibility to maintain the imperial house (which Russian occupation would most certainly have dismantled), which had lasted in unbroken lineage since the Jinmu emperor.

Here are some starting points for your research:

https://rethinkingschools.org/2013/08/09/army-teaches-wrong-lesson-in-nations-high-schools/

https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/30/the-bomb-didnt-beat-japan-stalin-did/

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