COVID-19 INFORMATION What you need to know about the coronavirus if you are living in Japan or planning a visit.

Flute comments

Posted in: Tokyo area sees daily coronavirus cases top 100 for first time See in context

Did we travel back in time ?

@Hervé L'Eisa

Official :

Nationalwide :

https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/houdou_list_202003.html

look for that kind of stuff : 新型コロナウイルスに関連した患者等の発生について(3月31日公表分)

Tokyo :

https://stopcovid19.metro.tokyo.lg.jp/en/

Osaka :

http://www.pref.osaka.lg.jp/iryo/osakakansensho/corona.html

Where to find data from other prefecture (the list is at the bottom of the page) :

https://github.com/reustle/covid19japan-data/

Compiled voluntary

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jfB4muWkzKTR0daklmf8D5F0UfIYAgcx-Ij9McClQ/edit#gid=0

https://coromap.info/

@noriahojanen

Flu, here we come again.

Are you comparing an illness for which a bunch of people get vaccinated every year thus stooping the spread to an illness from which nobody is vaccinated thus the exponential grow is not stopped ?

https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2020/03/17/why-exponential-growth-is-so-scary-for-the-covid-19-coronavirus/

How does the comparison go by regarding other countries ?

Italia :

flu this year (from October to end of January) : 2,768,000 positives, period of peak : 1 week + 488,000 cases ; death tools : 240 people

covid-19 (from end of January): 119,827 positives (asymptomatic excluded), as of current data peak : around 6,000*7=42,000 cases ; death tools : 14681 people

https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6

https://www.thelocal.it/20200123/flu-outbreak-in-italy-half-a-million-people-struck-down-in-a-week

Didn't you notice the curb is rising ? Even the death ones ? Not rising enough ? You understand what involve exponential growth ?

should start at 31 :

https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6

4 ( +7 / -3 )

Posted in: Japan to keep hospital beds for severely ill; use hotels for mild coronavirus cases See in context

Good.

+1 for converting the athlete village in an emergency hospital. The room are supposedly bigger than normal apartment, the place should be more or less empty but they should already have a bunch of the disposable athlete bed and since they were going to renovate everything in between the Olympic and the time the owners got, once more will train them.

Moreover, the owner should be less eager to get their place for the autumn, thus that will solve the problem of keeping it available for the Olympic next year.

1 ( +1 / -0 )

Posted in: Concern raised over exclusion of bar hostesses, sex workers from virus compensation See in context

@ rimno

Do they even pay taxes ?

No, they got a special Mizu shobai card which dispense them to pay income tax, city tax, consumption tax. They can also use it to not have to pay the mandatory health insurance and retirement insurance.

You understand, that even if these mothers choose to take the risk to play with the system, there is a limit as how much they can avoid to pay ?

Just give them the money. If you think yakuza are so cheap as to pray on this half a day worth of work at minimum salary in Tokyo, they should stop inviting them over at your party (hanami or not).

-3 ( +0 / -3 )

Posted in: Abe's two-mask pledge met online with derision and humor See in context

@Caliboy

Wear garbage bags

That should be more effective than paper mask in reducing risk of contamination. After, the problem is breath-ability. Some specific design should be used. To be seen too if by submerging them in some special solution they can successfully sterilize them and potentially be more environment friendly.

the government's emergency economic package to be compiled next week will include funds for the increased production and training of ECMO machines.

Next week !? How long does it take to make them and train people to use them ?

More than 2 months already passed since the first cluster.

And the government bothered meeting a specialist in machine used worldwide to deal with the pandemic only Thursday : today ?

If you are trying to make Japan government look bad, you are doing a freaking good job. If not, ... well ... the weather was good today, isn't it ?

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Posted in: Virus infections not rampant nationwide but Japan on brink: Abe See in context

new coronavirus infections have not reached the point across Japan to declare a state of emergency

Should it be interpreted as, as long the daily surge is not in a bunch of prefecture across Japan, they have no plan to declare state of emergency no matter how many cases a day Tokyo / Osaka reach and the cumulative number ?

They understand that declaring state of emergency, doesn't mean every prefecture is to make strong urge to their people/business and point and shame the non-obedient ones ?

3 ( +3 / -0 )

Posted in: Abe's two-mask pledge met online with derision and humor See in context

Will point and laugh manage to save some money by at least making them drop the send to each household and instead having these send to school ? I am not dreaming of them cancelling the whole order.

Since school are to reopen, some will most likely request that kid have mask and some parent just do no have any so these will be welcome and this way teacher can teach kido to properly use and clean these.

They should be able to come with something like : "We were told than several people expressed they thankfulness but wanted for them to be given to people more in need." or anything they see fit.

1 ( +1 / -0 )

Posted in: Japan 'on the brink' as it struggles to hold back coronavirus See in context

@ Tora

@flute and others who still oppose wearing masks

Were do I oppose people wearing mask ? Because I request people which are not wearing them to be left alone ?

Kept your inference for yourself, thank.

You guys didn't read my comment linking to the NYC article

No I didn't. I tried to go back reading it but I stopped as soon as you started yelling and ordering people around.

I read the article thought. No impact on my opinion (which you, most likely, have no idea about).

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Posted in: Japan to give face masks to 50 mil households to fight virus See in context

They should just send them to families that request them.

I agree. People are able to make their own cloth mask if they want masks. That will cost them around 550 for a set of 3 if they go to 100shop and they can have them fitting (thread and needle set1, piece of cotton 2, washable felt/fleece or any no easy water-trought 1, set of hair tie 1) and if you are bad at sewing you should most likely be able to find some friend/neighbor willing to do it for around 5000yens at most (production time). Regarding the time use could be a good idea to include working/studying mask dispositive : people come with a face mask, on the middle of the day they remove it and sterilize it (good opportunity to make sure people master mask removal and sterilization) to replace it with the one cleaned the day sterilized the day before. Repeat sterilization at home process at home in the evening. That should mean 3 cloth masks by person.

The production of disposable mask should be oriented in producing mask for people which need it (the obvious medical staff, care staff, cops, ... and the administrative&co staff working alongside them + people with some health issue which make them need disposable masks).

Choosing to wear a disposable one is not even a matter of if you find them effective or not but, since the production is around 4 masks a month by person, more of should you really be the one it is oriented to ?

(not even talking about the environmental cost)

-3 ( +0 / -3 )

Posted in: Japan 'on the brink' as it struggles to hold back coronavirus See in context

@fillmore2

why are you foreigners ( i am a foreigner too ) fighting about wearing a mask?

That have never stopped anybody to be biased a for example inferring nationality of people and using it to make a uniform pack.

if i hear some idiot say mask don't help, i will.........

You will what ? Insult them ? You already did.

just wear the ....mask,and do the other necessary stuff to get your family safe and other folks safe too.

is that too hard? or you are going to fight this to the end, maybe your end,

How come you still do not get some do not consider mask as necessary as some think they are useless. What about leaving them alone ? Trying to force people to wear mask is no better than trying to force them remove mask.

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: Around the world, political leaders trying to cope with the coronavirus pandemic are making calculations centered around the question: How many deaths are acceptable, as weighed against millions of jobs lost and trillions of dollars of economic output foregone? What's your view? See in context

First, I question "the around the world", absence of group sizing (some/several/...) and present tense.

My view is that the question seems to imply people think there is a choice in between sacrificing people or sacrificing economy. As if, by sacrificing people the economy will be in good shape or by saving people the economy will be destroyed. Wonder where they get the idea that that apply moreover in the current pandemic situation.

It is kind of like the effect of the pandemic should be seen as just people being ill and some die. No consequences, no economic effect, ...

People being ill as a cost for economy, people dying as a cost for economy, having to replace ill people as a cost for economy, health care as a cost for economy, psychological disorder has a cost for economy, mourning and self restrain has a cost for economy, forming new medical staff has a cost for economy, lost of trust for the government has a cost for economy, lost of trust for medical team has a cost for economy, ... and so on.

It is not like if we let a few % of our population die (weak, poor, old, unhealthy, unlucky, medical staff...) we are going to save the economy.

Even quite possible that the countries which will be able to substain a not too damaged version of the current economic model will be the countries which choose to save people and economy by taking the risk to crush the national budget, like Singapore, South Korea, ...

1 ( +1 / -0 )

Posted in: Tokyo records most new coronavirus cases in a day as pressure for lockdown builds See in context

@Caliboy

Of course, the media didn't tell you most of the new cases were imported.

But you know thanks to ...

The best we have is place of residence and all of them get "investigating". No information of supposed travel. You were already being told the people tested by quarantine staff at border have their separate count.

https://stopcovid19.metro.tokyo.lg.jp/en/

https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/newpage_00032.html

1 ( +1 / -0 )

Posted in: Should you wear a mask in public if you don't have the coronavirus? See in context

@Hello Kitty 321

Furthermore, the masks that ordinary people wear are not suitable for health workers anyway.

But they are produced. If every mask manufacturer converted 80% of its production line of dust mask to health worker mask production, the last 20% would be for allergic people and the like which will get their mask as part of their treatment in hospital, should not that solve the problem of mask shortage ?

After, that will probably mean a reduction of their income.

Regarding the efficiency of mask, I guess as Japan rely mostly on mask and hand washing to stop the spread of the pandemic ( https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/backstories/877/ ), we are kind of part of a giant experiment. We will see how things go.

I think as of now we have :

South Korea : mask + testing

Germany : testing

Japan : mask

...

3 ( +4 / -1 )

Posted in: Japan advises against travel to 50 nations including U.S., China See in context

@Yamada Taro

Schrodinger cat

※1 うち日本国籍の者1032人(これ以外に国籍確認中の者がいる)

That do not state that the other one are not Japanese but that the nationality is unknown. And not being Japanese by family register doesn't mean they were not born and grow up in Japan. Neither that make then non permanent resident not travelers.

I will not even make comment about the fact that the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare could think than that is a relevant information (except for old creep driving a big black hummer or the like).

And why do you think that is anything like a relevant information ? Regarding the topic the relevant number, for the same day, is 31 : the number of people tested positive by the quarantine staff of boarder.

@goldeneagle

Come from our dear government : https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/newpage_10595.html

You can guess how they are to switch the number to reduce the growing impression after the cruise include, cruise exclude ; that will be from all cases to recovered ones.

@Do the hustle

This whole scenario is a bit like Darwinism. Only the diligent will survive. The complacent will not survive.

You mean like people in hospital, medical staff included. If they die is because of their lack of hygiene ?

practicing good oral hygiene

Because, albeit the inability of the virus to contaminate you in public transportation and at work, it can only contaminate you from you mouth. Nose, eye, wound, lesion, ... not a chance, virus will go the other way.

Face palm

-1 ( +1 / -2 )

Posted in: Tokyo records most new coronavirus cases in a day as pressure for lockdown builds See in context

@carpslidy

Today empty restaurant, tomorrow empty restaurants, day after tomorrow empty restaurant and by Sat. it will be bankrupt restaurant.

No need to bold.

Restaurant will have to adjust : take out and delivery. (doing it itself should help).

I will suggest to go for creating a group with other shop in the area and create special offer. Kitchen will not appear out of the blue.

The can go for something like :

Liberty offer : 2 meals a day, anytime order

Planer offer : 2 meals a day, order before 12:00 and 18:00

Supper planner offer : 2 meals a day, one delivery, order before 12:00

the purpose of the planner will be to have the ability to plan delivery route

Adventurous offer : 2 meals a day, one delivery, no order.

the purpose is to increase work balance in between restaurant (reducing risk f one with lot of order and another without any order)

Cook will cook, ground staff will be in charge of delivery and managing order and communication in between restaurant throught any line/skype/... . Regarding money I guess, the best will be to have a base income for each shop out of the benefice + a part calculated in regard of work provided.

4 ( +5 / -1 )

Posted in: Koike calls for fewer outings; says state of emergency up to PM See in context

@carpslidy

You mean like the people working in tourism, entertainment, shop, restaurant, bar, ... which have already lost their job or will in the days to come and are unlucky but it's like that, bad period, ne.

The people if a mass quarantine is issued as they were not in employment could not go public to shame their company firing them neither will be concerned by any financial help by the government to company and worker as they are not working anymore and their loss of business can not be linked to the government decision.

2 ( +3 / -1 )

Posted in: Koike calls for fewer outings; says state of emergency up to PM See in context

@secretsquirrel

So if Koike San does not have the authority to do the necessary in Tokyo - who made the decision in Hokkaido ?

Different legal situation, I think.

The law we are under now was voted after the Hokkaido call and the governor agreed, he did not had the power to do it legally, thus it was no biding.

The current law state that the Prime Minister call for nationwide emergency, once this declaration is made, governor can declare local emergency. That is still not enforced law, mostly point and shame as the previous one but should still bring benefit logically.

The previous law was declared by cabinet not covering the current situation thus a new law had to be enacted, that created a hole were Hokkaido Governor could jump in without having any cabinet coming against hm for not waiting for national announcement as they themselves said the law at that time did not apply.

Koike is stuck in the hierarchical law in place now. Will she have declared if not ? I do not know. As pointed before politics and personal interest are in the play. Can another governor choose to just go for emergency declaration without a care for Abe&co, quite possibly as long as the benefit (personal, for the people, ... ) surpass the risk.

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Posted in: Mortuary services uneasy over funerals, cremations for Covid-19 victims See in context

   Mortuary should have been packed with bodies waiting to be cremated but no one is talking about it.

No one talking about it does not mean that is not happening, for one. And for two, lets do math to see what a packed with body involve.

The average number of death a day in Japan is more than 3400. And seems to be a bunch of crematorium : https://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/seikatsu-eisei24/dl/zenkoku_kasouba_database.pdf

Lets arbitrarily decide that the system will be packed with a 5% daily increase. That will mean 170 more deaths a day.

Lets drop all issue related to prognosis and exponential spread, taking in account the fatality rate of around 3,5%, to reach 170 more death a day, that will mean 4857 new cases a day.

I do not remember people going as far as this number for daily increase, more like there is thousand of cases and hundred of new cases a day.

So lets imaging an 1000 new infected a day, that will mean (still getting ride of prognosis and exponential spread) 35 more deaths a day so around 1% increase of work for crematorium.

So we are still stuck with the : "we do not know one way or another".

NB : taking in account prognosis and exponential spread will involve delay in between infection and death different for each people and the number of deaths increasing with time. Since we will be at the beginning, mixing these 2 elements will most likely create an irregular curb. Moreover the death rate also evolve with time. So that is a gross mathematical explanation.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Posted in: Tokyo confirms 63 new coronavirus cases, a record daily increase See in context

@Caliboy

That still leaves 47 cases left. Around 20 of those cases are Japanese coming back from North America or Europe.

Aren't the airport people counted separately ?

   日本で感染が確認された1724人のうち、JAPAN

   ▽東京都は362人、TOKYO

   ▽厚生労働省の職員や検疫官、それに空港の検疫で感染が確認された人などが合わせて41人です。AIRPORT

https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20200328/k10012355251000.html?utm_int=news_contents_news-main_006

In this article, they talk only about 3 travelers and that 29 people declared positive people on 28th are from the hospital, which bring the total to 40 including the day before tests. There is 23 untraceable cases as of now :

63(positive) - 29(hospital) - 3(travelers) - 8(contacts) = 23

https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20200328/k10012355481000.html?utm_int=all_side_ranking-social_001

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Posted in: Abe warns Japanese to prepare for prolonged coronavirus battle See in context

pledged to compile the "boldest-ever" stimulus package to address the economic impact from the coronavirus outbreak, including cash handouts to underpin household spending

Good. Can we have it after we fix the problem of the "rampant" spread of covid-19 in Japan ? Because as of now that is trying to fill a pierced bucket. Lot of people will not go outside spending money as long as the risk of catching the bug exist.

Do you math, mister the Prime Minister of Economy : one evening in the restaurant : 5000yens + visit to the doctor and medecine : 1000 yens + documentation for leave of work : 4000 yens + 4 days of unpaid sick leave : 40000yens + 10 days of unpaid isolation leave : 100000 yens + the potential loss of yearly bonus / the potential downgrading in the advancement scheme / the potential loss of you job / the potential contamination of the rest of the family and cost related / the potential need to move because for the neighbor you are the one which had it / .... : no price.

First you froze the economy the best you can (utilities/taxes cut / salary subsidiary / job subsidiary (form and send people without job to sector in need) / ... ). Second you get ride of the bug. Third you relaunch the machine and you will, most likely, be surprised to see that it will be smoother as several people are currently not spending much so even with lose of bonus and so on they are keeping at float and when things will be solved they will be so happy to spend money partying and so on.

7 ( +7 / -0 )

Posted in: 92 from Chicago let in at Narita airport without being asked to self-isolate See in context

@ browny1

You should check with the embassy.

Foreigner can not come to Japan from most of Europa directly or by taking a flight from elsewhere. Perhaps, family from Japanese citizen can, they should see with Japan embassy.

If he is a foreigner and do not compel, the authority should be able to use visa right as leverage way (cancellation, entry ban in the future, ...).

If he is Japanese, he should be able to came back if he find a flight.

Usually, stuff are not mandatory. Thus you have to do it at your how cost.

According to Reckless' case (in this comment section), home quarantine seems possible. And, article were about being asked to self quarantine at home or hostel, so ... .

They better check with embassy, I do not think that any of us have access to the official guideline.

@ Reckless

Hoping you son and the rest of the family stay well, do you have any official knowledge for browny1 ?

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Posted in: What’s behind Japan’s surprisingly low coronavirus numbers? See in context

I have question for the author :

What happened around 2-4 weeks ago ? (taking in account the delay after onset to be tested and the incubation period)

Regarding the "shikata ga nai" is one of the stuff which can explain the mass for hanami and the lack of social distancing. Can also be used to question the wearing of mask as they can not help than having their potentially ill self be stuck to potentially ill other ; but they can at least help this one.

How about linking all of these concepts with the low number of identified cases not as negative Schrodinger cat but positive ones ? Why if infected Japanese and their family were enduring the illness to not be a bother to other ?

Personally, I think the proximity with China and the reluctance of Abe to close border with it tensed Japanese up in protecting themselves. Then one of the first case of local transmission was identified at the time of death (tested before result after) and lead to a cluster involving taxi driver and medical staff, which brought more tense up. And to top it a cruise ship with lot of cases and official being infected too come up, alongside a new cluster in a hospital in the middle of the countryside, which must have not helped reduce the tense up. All of that could have brought people to be more careful without any regard to all the Japanese culture stuff. But since for a while the government was sending messages like it is ok, we win against the virus, we are handling thing well, we have almost no case and we can even reduce measure, ... ; Olympic should go on, go spend money ; people eased up.

So just another theory.

1 ( +2 / -1 )

Posted in: Telework, stockpiling spread in Tokyo after Koike's press conference See in context

@Triring

My condolences.

That do not reply to any of my question.

So as of now that is just speculation, one way or the other.

-1 ( +0 / -1 )

Posted in: Telework, stockpiling spread in Tokyo after Koike's press conference See in context

@Triring

Please give us your link to official daily/weekly/monthly death count.

Speculation work the 2 way round. We know we do not know and we will have to wait for the number to come out.

If there was an overflow we surely heard about it by now.

Why ? Do you have a lot of friend working in the cremation business ?

There is more than 3000 people dying a day a Japan. How much increase do you think will be needed for the system to overflow ?

4 ( +6 / -2 )

Posted in: Japan to set up coronavirus task force; no state of emergency yet See in context

@ noriahojanen

The key figure is the death toll alongside number of critically ill patients. Japan's number continued to remain low at 45 (+2 newly confirmed), with no exponential increase.

How do you know that ? The number we have is just the positive tested people. We have no idea for the untested people.

In a country were the average daily death is more than 3000 person, how big an increase is needed for people to notice something is going wrong ?

https://countrymeters.info/en/Japan

And I think you are over-estimating the power linked to the state of emergency in Japan.

A state of emergency would allow governors in hard-hit regions to take steps such as asking people to stay home, closing schools and other public facilities and cancelling large events.

[...]

Even if a state of emergency is eventually declared, experts noted there are no penalties for ignoring most of the local authorities' instructions.

Just have government bear some responsibility about the situation instead of having as for Tokyo&co and Hokkaido case, the governor asking with 0 legal basis so no enforcement, penalty, incitement, ... just having people/company fend for themselves and bear all consequences.

2 ( +2 / -0 )

Posted in: Japan to set up coronavirus task force; no state of emergency yet See in context

@ memoryfix

Exponential grow is a proportional grow.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_growth

Exponential grow :

taking a R0 of 5 and a 4degree chain :

degree 0 : 1 =1

degree 1 : 1+(1x5) =6

degree 2 : 1+(1x5)+((1x5)x5) = 31

degree 3 : 1+(1x5)+((1x5)x5)+(((1x5)x5)x5) = 156*

degree 4 : 1+(1x5)+((1x5)x5)+(((1x5)x5)x5)+((((1x5)x5)x5)x5) = 781

7 ( +7 / -0 )

Posted in: Japan to set up coronavirus task force; no state of emergency yet See in context

@thegourou

Just the idiotic actions of the past week

Are you trying to go for the move : not the national government fault. It is someone else fault ?

@YeahRight

Oh, and be sure to buy lots of toilet paper, instant ramen, feminine products, masks, and hand sanitizer for the coming lock down.

Thanks to not push people into doing mass buying. As said before, even in the event of a mass quarantine, the supermarket are most likely to stay open. You do not have to mass buy.

Even if you aim to stock for a month or so just do it slowly in the course of a few weeks, please. There is nothing bad about being a prepper moreover in a country with natural disaster but it is something which is done thought time. Starting doing it at last minute in hoard can put other people in difficulty as they will not find what they need now. So in this kind of situation, please be considerate and aim at a lower rate of overbuying to stock and you can also adjust to stuff which are not now in high demand but are as good if not better : soup for one (but still without mass-buying, please).

10 ( +10 / -0 )

Posted in: Japan to set up coronavirus task force; no state of emergency yet See in context

A government panel of experts on Thursday said new-coronavirus infections in Japan appear highly likely to be "rampant"

That is so surprising ... It is not like for days/weeks WHO is going round and round asking countries to do test, for one reason, because that pandemic can go undetected for a while before exploding. The whole world will be stunned to hear of that.

I guess time to sort needed thing out, do not hoard (regarding other countries even if they mass quarantine they should not dare go stronger than Occident, so supermarket will stay open and supply chain working so do not mass buy and if you are at risk it should be better to wait until the hoard get out of supermarket to shop).

10 ( +11 / -1 )

Posted in: Koike urges Tokyo residents to stay at home at weekend See in context

@Jeff Ko

As everybody said.

Hospital do not exist for the sole purpose of dealing with covid-19. Meaning all year long they save live. When the hospital start being overflowded with critical patient, the staff end up exhausted and for some contaminated, ... how will they deal with all the patient covid-19 and other ?

9 ( +10 / -1 )

Posted in: Deer me See in context

@TrevorPeace As long as you spend a few thousand in deer feeding that should not appear heartless.

0 ( +0 / -0 )

Posted in: Experts warn Japanese growing complacent of coronavirus risk See in context

@PhantomAgent

It seems to me that the Government and their experts are gearing up to blame the people when testing finally begins in earnest in Japan and case numbers rise dramatically.

And do not forget the : it is coming from Europa, US. There was no community transmission going unseen.

If they want people to be more carefull to avoid being infected, they should do their end the deal and test suspected case to reduce risk of being in contact with infected. What is the point of refraining doing thing you enjoy when you have at the same time to ride train with coughing and sneezing people (it is ok they have a mask (perhaps) so no worry not even a need for them to put their arm in front of their face in case the pressure make it possible for part of stuff to go pass the mask (do not know if that was studied)) ; to work with people currently not feeling good or which were not feeling good take a few day off but since the symptom subdued had to go back to work because if you dare not have a continuous high fever when taking medecine for at least 4 days, that is something else ; ... and in top of it government going more or less like we win the fight go back make/spend money but do not go overboard by doing free stuff or we can still put the city on lockdown. Sure that is all on the people.

2 ( +2 / -0 )

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